|Capital||Moscow 55°45′N 37°37′E|
|Government||Federal semi-presidential constitutional republic|
|Area Total||17,098,242 km2 6,592,800 sq mi|
Russia also officially known as the Russian Federation is a country situated in northern Eurasia. It is a federal presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland(both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait.
The name Russi The name Russia is derived from Rus, a medieval state populated mostly by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the later history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля" (russkaya zemlya), which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'".
The nation's history began with that of the East Slavs, who emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland in Europe to Alaska in North America.
Russia is a biggest exporter of natural resources, particularly oil and natural gas. It has the 8th largest economy in the world by nominal GDP and the 6th largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). Growth was primarily driven by non-traded services and goods for the domestic market, as opposed to oil or mineral extraction and exports. Oil, natural gas, metals, and timber account for more than 80% of Russian exports abroad. Since 2003, the exports of natural resources started decreasing in economic importance as the internal market strengthened considerably. Oil export earnings allowed Russia to increase its foreign reserves from $12 billion in 1999 to $597.3 billion on 1 August 2008.
The total area of cultivated land in Russia was estimated as 1,237,294 km2 in 2005, the fourth largest in the world. From 1999 to 2009, Russia's agriculture demonstrated steady growth, and the country turned from a grain importer to the third largest grain exporter after EU and the United States. The production of meat has grown from 6,813,000 tonnes in 1999 to 9,331,000 tonnes in 2008, and continues to grow.
According to the Constitution of Russia, the country is a federation and semi-presidential republic, wherein the President is the head of state and the Prime Minister is the head of government. The Russian Federation is fundamentally structured as a multi-party representative democracy, with the federal government composed of three branches:
• Legislative : The bicameral Federal Assembly of Russia, made up of the 450-member State Duma and the 166-member Federation Council, adopts federal law, declares war, approves treaties, has the power of the purse and the power of impeachment of the President.
• Executive : The President is the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, can veto legislative bills before they become law, and appoints theGovernment of Russia (Cabinet) and other officers, who administer and enforce federal laws and policies.
• Judiciary : The Constitutional Court, Supreme Court, Supreme Court of Arbitration and lower federal courts, whose judges are appointed by the Federation Council on the recommendation of the President, interpret laws and can overturn laws they deem unconstitutional. The president is elected by popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term, but not for a third consecutive term). Ministries of the government are composed of the Premier and his deputies, ministers, and selected other individuals; all are appointed by the President on the recommendation of the Prime Minister (whereas the appointment of the latter requires the consent of the State Duma). Leading political parties in Russia include United Russia, theCommunist Party, the Liberal Democratic Party, and A Just Russia. The Democracy Index ranked Russia as the 122nd most democratic country in the world in 2013.
Major exports of Russia : Petroleum oils, crude (36%), Petroleum oils, refined (16%), Petroleum gases (12%), Coal; briquettes (3%), Semifinished products of iron or nonalloy steel (2%)
Major imports of Russia : Cars (6%), Medicaments, packaged (4%), Parts and accessories of the motor vehicles (3%), Automatic data processing machines (2%), Transmission apparatus for radio, telephone and TV (2%)
Major trade partners of Russia (Exports) : Netherlands (12%), Ukraine (6%), Germany (6%), China (6%), Italy (5%)
Major trade partners of Russia (Imports) : China (16%), Germany (15%), Ukraine (6%), Belarus (4%), Japan (4%)